In this shift theory, there is also modulation. Modulation has to do with the changes related to the meaning shift, which happens because the perspective or point of view changes. According to Peter Newmark in A Textbook of Translation, the modulation procedures are active for passive, abstract for concrete, cause for effect, one part for another, reversal of terms, space for time, intervals and limits and change of symbols. Of these procedures, `active for passive’ (and vice versa) is a common transposition. (89)
According to W. Stannard Allen in Living English Structure, a gerund is cooking recipes
defined as the part of the verbs that ends in –ing which has the force of a noun as well as that of a verb.(177) According to Marcella Frank in Modern English Part II, gerund is defined as participial forms used in noun function.(97)
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in Advanced English Grammar, gerunds mean fulfilled actions (fulfilled before the action of the preceding verb).
2nd action 1st action
(1) The manager remembered paying the bill.
(the action was fulfilled before the action of the first, main verb)
1st action 2nd action
The manager remembered to pay the bill. resep masakan Indonesia
(the action happened after the action of the first, main verb) (308)
According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, the gerund has several functions:
Gerund phrases may perform all the functions that nouns do.
Subject of verb
Her cleaning the house every day is not necessary. Contoh surat lamaran kerja
Object of verb
(3) Her husband appreciates her cleaning the house every day.
Object of preposition:
In prepositional object
(4) Her husband insists on her cleaning the house every day.
In adverbial phrase
By cleaning the house every day she is pleasing her husband. HOW TO MAKE A WEBSITE
(6) What her husband insists on is her cleaning the house every day. (predicate noun)
(7) Her husband insists on one thing-her cleaning the house every day. (314-315)
a. GERUND PHRASES AS A SUBJECT
According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, a gerund phrase does not occur frequently as a subject. One of its common uses as a Busby seo test
subject is in general statements with “be” as the main verb.
(8) Eating a good breakfast is very wise.
(9) Taking a long walk every day is good exercise.
The gerund phrase may also function as the subject of a verb, expressing:
1. Cause-effect relationship
(10) Seeing her every day made him realize how wonderful she was.
(11) His finding the error quickly saved him (=caused him to save) many hours of extra work.
The punishing of a man known to be innocent of any Download MP3
(12) crime shocks our moral consciousness and is seen as a grave injustice.
A gerund phrase subject with such a verb may have conditional meaning.
(13) Doing such a thing now (=If you do such a thing now, it) will cause you much trouble later on.
(14) Being overcharged for anything enrages her.
(15) Seeing her so thin and pale shocked him.
(16) Seeing her going out with another man shocked him.
It should be noted that such verbs of emotion often also denote some degree of cause; thus “enrages her”, “shocked him” in the above sentences may be Free song lyrics
interpreted as “causes her to become enraged”, “caused him to be shocked.” Busby seo test
Gerund phrases may also function as subjects of passive verbs.
(17) His keeping accurate records has never been questioned. Their accepting the money will be considered unwise.
A gerund phrase subject sometimes appears after anticipatory it + an adjective. Such a construction usually represents informal usage.
It’s very embarrassing (,) not remembering your name. Singing Canary
(19) It’s incredible (,) meeting an old schoolmate so far from home.
A comma is required if the “subject” is included in the gerund phrase-It’s strange, his doing that.
Sometimes a noun is used rather than an adjective in this construction after anticipatory “it”.
(20) It will be a sad thing, not seeing her any more.
(21) It’s been a pleasure meeting you.
(22) It’s no use (or no good) crying over spilled milk.
No use and no need may also be preceded by expletive “there”-There’s no use lowongan kerja terbaru
(or no need) crying over spilled milk. how to create a website
Gerund phrase subjects after anticipatory “it” often have alternate forms with infinitive phrases.
(23) It’s very embarrassing not to remember your name.
(24) It’s been a pleasure to meet you.
(25) It’s no use to cry over spilled milk. (321)
According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in Advanced English Grammar, gerunds as Subjects-Gerunds emphasize the action, the continuous nature of an activity, and often imply something already in progress.
(action emphasis) Promosi blog
(26) Running down small game was probably one of the earliest methods of obtaining meat.
b. GERUND PHRASES AS OBJECTS OF VERBS
According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, certain verbs in English are followed by verbals-either gerunds or infinitives-which are considered as the objects of these verbs. Most of these verbs denote mental activity or indirect speech and therefore require subjects that refer to human beings. Others have little semantic content outside of indicating aspect-the beginning, duration, end or repetition of an action; these verbs may or may not be used with subjects denoting persons. There is desain rumah minimalis
less agreement that a verbal following one of these aspect-denoting verbs is its object; actually, there is some justification for considering a verb that expresses aspect as a quasi-auxiliary rather than as a verb that takes an object.(322)
c. Gerund as Object of Prepositions
(1) Nominal Function of Prepositional Gerund Phrases
According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, Any verb used as the object in a prepositional phrase takes the form of a gerund. Most gerund phrases after prepositions are subjectless, especially those in adverbial prepositional phrases. Such gerund phrases Lowongan cpns