MODULATION

November 18, 2008

MODULATION

In this shift theory, there is also modulation. Modulation has to do with the changes related to the meaning shift, which happens because the perspective or point of view changes. According to Peter Newmark in A Textbook of Translation, the modulation procedures are active for passive, abstract for concrete, cause for effect, one part for another, reversal of terms, space for time, intervals and limits and change of symbols. Of these procedures, `active for passive’ (and vice versa) is a common transposition. (89)

  1. Gerund

According to W. Stannard Allen in Living English Structure, a gerund is cooking recipes

defined as the part of the verbs that ends in –ing which has the force of a noun as well as that of a verb.(177) According to Marcella Frank in Modern English Part II, gerund is defined as participial forms used in noun function.(97)

According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in Advanced English Grammar, gerunds mean fulfilled actions (fulfilled before the action of the preceding verb).

2nd action 1st action

(1) The manager remembered paying the bill.

(the action was fulfilled before the action of the first, main verb)

1st action 2nd action

The manager remembered to pay the bill. resep masakan Indonesia

(the action happened after the action of the first, main verb) (308)

1. Function

According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, the gerund has several functions:

Gerund phrases may perform all the functions that nouns do.

Subject of verb

Her cleaning the house every day is not necessary. Contoh surat lamaran kerja

(2)

Object of verb

(3) Her husband appreciates her cleaning the house every day.

Object of preposition:

In prepositional object

(4) Her husband insists on her cleaning the house every day.

In adverbial phrase

By cleaning the house every day she is pleasing her husband. HOW TO MAKE A WEBSITE

(5)

Subjective complement

(6) What her husband insists on is her cleaning the house every day. (predicate noun)

Appositive

(7) Her husband insists on one thing-her cleaning the house every day. (314-315)

a. GERUND PHRASES AS A SUBJECT

According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, a gerund phrase does not occur frequently as a subject. One of its common uses as a Busby seo test

subject is in general statements with “be” as the main verb.

(8) Eating a good breakfast is very wise.

(9) Taking a long walk every day is good exercise.

The gerund phrase may also function as the subject of a verb, expressing:

1. Cause-effect relationship

(10) Seeing her every day made him realize how wonderful she was.

(11) His finding the error quickly saved him (=caused him to save) many hours of extra work.

The punishing of a man known to be innocent of any Download MP3

(12) crime shocks our moral consciousness and is seen as a grave injustice.

A gerund phrase subject with such a verb may have conditional mean­ing.

(13) Doing such a thing now (=If you do such a thing now, it) will cause you much trouble later on.

2. Emotion

(14) Being overcharged for anything enrages her.

(15) Seeing her so thin and pale shocked him.

(16) Seeing her going out with another man shocked him.

It should be noted that such verbs of emotion often also denote some degree of cause; thus “enrages her”, “shocked him” in the above sentences may be Free song lyrics

interpreted as “causes her to become enraged”, “caused him to be shocked.” Busby seo test

Gerund phrases may also function as subjects of passive verbs.

(17) His keeping accurate records has never been questioned. Their accepting the money will be considered unwise.

A gerund phrase subject sometimes appears after anticipatory it + an adjective. Such a construction usually represents informal usage.

It’s very embarrassing (,) not remembering your name. Singing Canary

(18)

(19) It’s incredible (,) meeting an old schoolmate so far from home.

A comma is required if the “subject” is included in the gerund phrase-It’s strange, his doing that.

Sometimes a noun is used rather than an adjective in this construction after anticipatory “it”.

(20) It will be a sad thing, not seeing her any more.

(21) It’s been a pleasure meeting you.

(22) It’s no use (or no good) crying over spilled milk.

No use and no need may also be preceded by expletive “there”-There’s no use lowongan kerja terbaru

(or no need) crying over spilled milk. how to create a website

Gerund phrase subjects after anticipatory “it” often have alternate forms with infinitive phrases.

(23) It’s very embarrassing not to remember your name.

(24) It’s been a pleasure to meet you.

(25) It’s no use to cry over spilled milk. (321)

According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in Advanced English Grammar, gerunds as Subjects-Gerunds emphasize the action, the continuous nature of an activity, and often imply something already in progress.

(action emphasis) Promosi blog

(26) Running down small game was probably one of the earliest methods of obtaining meat.

b. GERUND PHRASES AS OBJECTS OF VERBS

According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, certain verbs in English are followed by verbals-either gerunds or infinitives-which are considered as the objects of these verbs. Most of these verbs denote mental activity or indirect speech and therefore require subjects that refer to human beings. Others have little semantic content outside of indicating aspect-the beginning, duration, end or repetition of an action; these verbs may or may not be used with subjects denoting persons. There is desain rumah minimalis

less agreement that a verbal following one of these aspect-denoting verbs is its object; actually, there is some justification for considering a verb that expresses aspect as a quasi-auxiliary rather than as a verb that takes an object.(322)

c. Gerund as Object of Prepositions

(1) Nominal Function of Prepositional Gerund Phrases

According to Marcella Frank in Modern English a Practical Reference Guide, Any verb used as the object in a prepositional phrase takes the form of a gerund. Most gerund phrases after prepositions are subjectless, especially those in adverbial prepositional phrases. Such gerund phrases Lowongan cpns

Methodology of Research

November 18, 2008

E. Methodology of Research

1. Method

This research uses a descriptive method because it gives a description of the gerund and its translation into Indonesian. The writer will analyze the data by describing what affixes the translator uses in translating gerunds and what kind of shift the translator uses in translating gerunds.

2. Data

This research analyzes 126 data in sentences, comprising gerunds and its translation from e-love by Caroline Plaisted, the bilingual edition.

3. Data Source

The data are acquired from 245 pages of e-love novel by Caroline cooking recipe

Plaisted, the bilingual edition, which was first published in 2004 by Gramedia in Jakarta and it is translated by Sutanty Lesmana.

4. Data Collection

After reading the material comprehensively, the writer underlines the sentences that contain gerunds and its translations into Indonesian. Those sentences are entered into data cards. One data card contains a sentence in the source language and the translation in the target language.

5. Data analysis

The steps used to analyze the translation of gerunds are grouping the data card based on the function of the gerund (Object of Preposition, Object of resep masakan

Verb and Subject), analyzing the data card by focusing what procedure the translator uses to translate the gerunds and making a conclusion of the analysis.

CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Contoh surat lamaran

Translation is a process of transferring the meaning of the text from the SL to the TL. In Approaches to Translation, Newmark said that translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in another language. (7) Newmark conveys his idea in A Textbook of Translation that translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. (5)

According to Mildred L. Larson in Meaning Based Translation: A Guide to Cross-Language Equivalence, translation is basically a change of form. The form of a language is the actual words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, etc., which are spoken or written. These forms are referred to as the surface structure of a How To Make A Website

language. It is the structural part of language which is actually seen in print or heard in speech. In translation the form of the source language is replaced by the form of the receptor (target) language. Translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. (3) The main goal of translating is finding the equivalence of the words and makes the sentences of the text sound natural in the TL.

  1. Formal correspondence versus Dynamic equivalence

According to Nida and Taber in The Theory and Practice of Translation, dynamic equivalance is prior to formal correspondence. (22) This means that translators should remember that transferring the message is their top priority. Busby SEO Test

1. Formal correspondence

Formal correspondence is an effort to maintain the formal consistenty. According to Nida and Taber in The Theory and Practice of Translation, Formal correspondence is produced by combining the formal consistenty of the length of the sentence, the classes of words and the order of word, phrase, and clause.(21-22) According to Catford in A Linguistic Theory of Translation, formal correspondent is any TL category (unit, class, structure, element of structure, etc.) which can be said to occupy, as nearly as possible, the `same’ place in the `economy’ of the TL as the given SL category occupies in the SL.(27)

2. Dynamic equivalence Musik indonesia

Dynamic equivalence is an effort of translator to send the same message of the SL into TL so the reader in TL has the same response as the reader in SL. According to Nida and Taber in The Theory and Practice of Translation, dynamic equivalence is defined in terms of the degree to which the receptors of the message in the receptor language respond to it in substantially the same manner as the receptors in the source language. This response can never be identical, for the cultural and historical settings are too different, but there should be a high degree of equivalence of response, or the translation will have failed to accomplish its purpose. (24)

If the translator intends to produce the same response from the readers in the Free lyrics

SL and the readers in the TL, the translator has to put a greater emphasis on the dynamic equivalence concept over the formal correspondence. To achieve this, sometimes the translator has use shift.

  1. Procedure of Translating

A procedure is the act or manner of proceeding in any action or process. According to Rochayah Machali in Pedoman Bagi Penerjemah, the translation procedures only focus on the translation of word, phrase, clause, sentences not the whole text.(62) The procedures that will be used in this thesis are shift and modulation. Busby Seo Test

1. SHIFT

One of the translation procedures is shift. According to Catford in A Linguistic Theory of Translation, By `shifts’ we mean departures from formal correspondence in the process of going from the SL to the TL. There are two major types of `shift’. They are level shifts and category shifts. (73)

a. Category Shift

According to Catford in A Linguistic Theory of Translation, category-shifts, Canary pet bird

which are departures from formal correspondence in translation, consist of structure-shift, class-shift, unit-shift (rank-changes), and intra system-shift.(76)

a Structure Shift. According to Catford in A Linguistic Theory of

Translation, A structure shift involves a change in grammatical structure between the source language and the target language. (77)

Example: White house - ‘Gedung putih

b. Class Shift. According to Catford in A Linguistic Theory of

Translation, class shift occurs when the translation equivalent of a SL

item is a member of a different class from the original item. (78)

SL: The neighbours were hostile to the family. lowongan cpns

(1)

Adj.

TL: Para tetangga memusuhi keluarga tersebut.

Verb

c. Unit Shift. According to Catford in A Linguistic Theory of

Translation, by unit-shift we mean changes of rank-that is, departures

from formal correspondence in which the trans­lation equivalent of

a unit at one rank in the SL is a unit at a different rank in the TL.(79)

Example: These days translated into sekarang (from phrase to word).

d. Intra-system Shift. According to Catford in A Linguistic Theory how to build a website

of Translation, we use the term intra-system shift for those cases where the shift occurs internally, within a system; that is, for those cases where SL and TL possess systems which approximately corres­pond formally as to their constitution, but when the translation involves selection of a non-corresponding term in the TL system.(80)

For example: Cans translated into kaleng-kaleng. Plural word in English may be translated into reduplication in Indonesian language.

b. Level Shift

According to Catford in A Linguistic Theory of Translation, by a shift of level we mean that a SL item at one linguistic level has a TL translation equivalent at a different level.(73) Promosi web

Meanwhile, accroding to Peter Newmark in A Textbook of Translation, A `shift’ (Catford’s term) or `transposition’ (Vinay and Darbelnet) is a translation procedure involving a change in the grammar from SL to TL. Transposition is the only translation procedure concerned with grammar, and most translators make transpositions intuitively.

One type, the change from singular to plural, e.g. `furniture’; des meubles; `applause’, des applaudis­sements; `advice’, des conseils; or in the position of the adjective: la maison blanche, `the white house’ is automatic and offers the translator no choice. A second type of shift is required when an SL grammatical structure does not exist in the TL. Here there are always options. The third type of shift is the one where literal translation is grammatically possible but desain rumah

may not accord with natural usage in the TL. The fourth type of transposition is the replacement of a virtual lexical gap by a grammatical structure

A gerund is included in the second type of shift. The shift is required when an SL grammatical structure does not exist in the TL. For example, the English gerund (`Working with you is a pleasure’) offers many choices. The gerund can be translated by verb-noun (le travail, die Arbeit), or a subordinate clause (‘when, if, etc. I work with you’), with a recast main clause, or, in some languages, a noun-infinitive (e.g. das Arbeiten, which is formal style), or an infinitive. Peter Newmark thinks that the gerund is the most neglected of all translator’s transpositions. (85-88) Lowongan kerja terbaru

CHAPTER I

November 18, 2008

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study

One of the problems that translators need to solve in translating a text is the gerund because there is no gerund system in the Indonesian language. According to W. Stannard Allen in Living English Structure, a gerund is defined as the part of a verb that ends in –ing which has the force of a noun as well as that of a verb. (177) The reason why the gerund system does not exist in the Indonesian language is that the concept of gerund is different from nominalization in the Indonesian language. According to Gorys Keraf in Tata Bahasa Rujukan Bahasa Indonesia, nominalization is derived from a verb or an adjective by adding affixes such as pe+V, pe-+V+ -an, ke-+V+ -an and V+ -an. (60-61) A Gerund is derived from a verb by adding the participle -ing. Besides that, nominalization only has a substantival meaning. The gerund, however, has Lyrics to

a verbal meaning or a substantival meaning. According to Wiliting in The Gerund, the gerund has a force of a noun if the gerund has a substantival feature such as having an article in front of it and having a plural noun. When a gerund has a force of a noun, it has a substantival meaning. Substantive is a word that can function as a noun such as a gerund, an infinitive and a noun. The gerund has a force of a verb if the gerund has a verbal feature such as having its own object, and having inflected in the perfect and the passive. When a gerund has a force of a verb, it has a verbal meaning. (32-33) When this is the case, gerund becomes a hybrid because it has a noun form but it has a verbal meaning

The translator may try to maintain the form of a gerund which is a BUSBY SEO TEST

noun by adding affixes such as pe- an, ke-an, pe- and -an. This is one of the procedures in translating the gerund into the Indonesian language. However, in practice, a translator has to use other procedures to achieve a dynamic equivalence where the meaning is the most important factor to transfer and not the noun form. The translator may use a class shift by adding affixes such as be-, me-, me- -kan, di- and ter- because he or she finds that using affixes such as pe- an, ke-an, pe- and -an is not possible or it will make the translation sounds unnatural. The example is that the sentence “I could not bear thinking about it.” is translated “Aku tidak tahan memikirkannya.” The translator can not replace the affix me-+V+-kan with the affix pe- an, ke-an, pe- and –an. The sentence will sound unnatural if the canaries birds

translator replaces it. This is because there is not a noun that has a verbal meaning in Indonesian. This system does not exist in Indonesian language. According to Peter Newmark in A Textbook of Translation, unnatural translation is marked by interference, primarily from the SL text, possibly from a third language known to the translator including his own, if it is not the target language. He also states that one of the things that we must pay attention to is the gerund. (27)

Accroding to Peter Newmark in A Textbook of Translation, translating a gerund often uses transpositions. (88) Transposition illustrates a frequent tension between grammar and stress. According to Helen Hoyt Schmidt in Advanced English Grammar, writers choose gerunds when no abstract noun phrases exist or to lowongan kerja

express movement and activity in some kind of process. Gerunds have stronger verbal force than noun clauses, infinitives, or abstract noun phrases. That means they put an emphasis on some kind of action. (322) This shows that the purpose of using the gerund is to emphasize some kind of action that the writer of the SL wants the reader to take special notice. A translator must try to make a good translation so that the TL reader gives the same response as the SL reader in reading the text containing a gerund in their own language.

In translating gerund, translators may use a different procedure such as shift, modulation, or omission. Even so, translator must keep in mind to achieve a dynamic equivalence because experts agree that translators must make the translation natural by putting the meaning as a top priority. Nida and Taber agree how to make a website

that translators have to make the message as a priority in translating a text.

Eugene A. Nida and Charles Taber in The Theory and Practice of Translation, make the definition of translation more accurate. According to them: “Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style” (12).

As mentioned above, the writer chooses gerund because there is no gerund in the Indonesian language system. The writer chooses E-love novel as the source of data because the writer finds many gerunds in the book and because the book is a serial of Teenlit which is popular among teenagers nowadays. Promosi website

B. Statement of the Problem

Some questions to answer in this thesis are:

1. What is the equivalence of gerund in Indonesian?

2. What procedure does the translator use to translate the gerund into Indonesian in e-love by Caroline Plaisted, the bilingual edition?

C. Research Objectives

The aims of this research are as follows:

1. To describe the equivalence of the gerund from English into Indonesian

language in e-love by Caroline Plaisted, the bilingual edition.

2. To describe the procedures used by the translator to translate gerund from

English into Indonesian language in e-love by Caroline Plaisted, the desain rumah minimalis

bilingual edition.

D. Scope & Limitation Research

The writer only analyzes the gerunds found in e-love by Caroline Plaisted and its translation by analayzing the equivalence of gerunds and the procedures in translating gerunds. The writer will not analyze the gerund time relationship to the main verb. Lowongan kerja

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November 18, 2008

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